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Ajhandatdrek Kalonajh

Korjhanke Jhalki Jagwalikele

Jhanelna 4

Ava tervoc Hercules yesolun srevelitrana jhalret srev'es ilvaya ildivravo d'eped kormenes. Srev'es yeklejka ritrejh kejhirole sjhek yelrela lrapedle yeledajvo avasjh vlospo yejhulgivo voc datev.

Jhalki eteva. Voc datev Hercules yeljhek kormaknilv'ot yejhalvo tro jletrekidake. Silmorjavo sad'e ri vasalo onasjh jrevanosvo sjhek d'ejvaga kanayov calkerid'eki ri korjhanes. Jletrekida trajuld'e ri sjhudanilvatle detlijhalevo tenid'e rivo onasjh iltevna onasjhvo kespovoc. Nilnrulva tenid'e ri sana'eki ri lanos siljetem esa pecel nor. Jetem lonake esa sjhek na jletrekina teniye ri vado'avasjh adna.

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Vocabulary :

ava tervoc as always naljhek to hold nrulva face (See *)  
nasolun to stop jletrekina judge jetem thing (See *)  
jhal place; location morja demon pecel usual  
vaya grandfather sana ri to be been (See *) nor but (See *)  
divri sibling (See *) onasjh (See *) lonake unusual  
naped to sleep jrevanos unintelligent one; mindless one avasjh like; similar to  
kormen death nacalkeri to find (See *) ad- other  
ritrejh plant korjhan hell      
kejhiro snake natrajul to clothe      
lraped labyrinth sjhuda- royal      
naledaj to shout (See *) detlijha sigil      
voc datev a second time (See *) tenina ri to seem      
jhalki journey iltevna human      
nateva to end kespovoc god      
           

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*Notes on translation :

The general word in Kalonese for "sibling" is divri. Like many neutral words with practical use with other genders (teve meaning "cat" is another), it can be modified to masculine or feminine gender by changing the ending. The masculine noun modifier is ya (however, the contracted form a is more often used), and the feminine noun modifier is an (although this particular one is only used if the gender modification takes place in the middle of a word or if the word ends in a consonant, otherwise, add just n to the end). Therefore, the word for "sibling" is divri, the word for "brother" is divra and the word for "sister" is divrin. (Similarly, the general word for "cat" is teve, the word for "male cat" is teva and the word for "female cat" is teven.)

The word meaning "to shout" is naledaj, but its meaning can be changed by using an "ava adverbial phrase". In this passage, such an adverbial phrase is ava vlospo. From Jhanelna 1, we know that vlospo means "crow", therefore the meaning of the aforementioned phrase is "like a crow". However, in English, we would not say "to shout like a crow". Instead, we would say "to caw" or "to crow".

The expression voc datev makes use of an ordinal number in Kalonese. To form an ordinal number from a cardinal number, simply add the suffix -tev. To say "first time" therefore, one would say voc natev, or to basically say "millionth", say jhicotev.

We have met the question So sada ri?, meaning "How are you?". The passive of the verb "to be", i.e. "to be been", is not used in English, but is given a use in Kalonese. It gives a report of one's condition; one's well being, with the active agent being the (in Kalonese) understood impersonal "it". Taking from the passage's context, for example, silmorjavo sad'e ri vasalo, this literally means "these demons were been by it better". Since this makes little or no sense in English, a more adaptive translation could be "these demons were in better condition".

Depending upon where it is used, onasjh has three, from an English perspective, completely different meanings. If used after a comparative (word beginning with prefix va-), it means "than", however, when used anywhere else (but usually after a verb or adjective), it means "unlike" if used once, and "neither (like) ... nor (like)" if used twice or more with the conjunction suffix vo, meaning "and". In Kalonese, under the circumstances applied, this is found to be a completely logical displacement, since the word onasjh itself is merely a contraction of on avasjh, meaning "not like". In the first of the three, it is considered appropriate since it does imply difference, which is what the comparative (and superlative) are intended to put across. If it makes more sense, you may wish to consider sad'e ri vasalo onasjh ... literally meaning "in such a good degree of condition not applicable to ...", although when translating, use more identifiable English terminology.

Nacalkeri means "to find", and therefore calkerina ri means to be found. This note exists merely as a reminder of the gerund (active verbal noun) and gerundive (passive verbal adjective), which are two of the ways in which the infinite form of a verb can be interpreted. Calkerid'eki ri is the gerundive agreeing to the direct object noun kanayov, and as the grammatical rules in the page covering the Infinite describe, it in combination means "the people that could be found". It makes just as much sense in translation to say "the people found" or "those found".

Although the usual way to pluralise in Kalonese is to either change a na in the word meaning "one" into da or add -vo as a suffix, since the possessive prefix nil- attached to the word for "face", nrulva, is plural, it is understood that the noun is also plural, and therefore no suffix is necessary.

The Kalonese word jetem, meaning "thing", is in itself self explanatory, however, the reason I have given it a place here is because of its use with sil. The latter, sil, used as a prefix on a noun, means "this", but used on its own means "then". In English, "this" can be used on its own as a noun - as the subject or object of a verb with its meaning understood by what a previous clause or phrase has stated, but in Kalonese, the problem with this is all to apparent. The way to get around it, though, is to instead say "this thing", or siljetem, for the same effect. In translation, however, "thing" can be omitted, since English has no need for it.

Clauses beginning with the conjunction "but" in English, when translated into Kalonese, end with nor. These can be identified easily since they are constructed in such a way that they sound to begin with, and correctly so, out of place with the previous clause, as if a new sentence had been started. Usually, these nor clauses begin with the verb's subject with the verb as second idea, or sometimes with the verb itself.

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