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Ajhandatdrek Kalonajh

Verbs - The Past and Future Tenses

There are three finite tenses in Kalonese - present, past and future. To distinguish further between them, adverbs are used preceding the verb. Of these three, the past tense is the most difficult to form. Nevertheless, here are the instructions on how to form it: Remove the "na" from the infinitive in the same way as you would to form the present tense, except add in the past tense subject pronouns. They are:

To (past) Na'e To (past) Na'e


I ce we cede
you d'e you d'de
he ye they (m) yede
she kii they (f) kide
it e they d'e

For example, we will look at the verb "To have been":

To have been Na'esa
Singular Plural
cesa ced'esa
d'esa d'desa
yesa yedesa
kiisa kidesa
esa d'esa

In the case of having the ending of a verb starting with "d", in second person plural, replace "d'de" with "dei".

The future tense is much easier than the past. You simply form the present tense and add "tra" as a suffix:

To (future) Na..tra   To soon be Nasatra
Singular Plural   Singular Plural
ca..tra cada..tra   casatra cadasatra
da..tra d'da..tra   dasatra d'dasatra
ya..tra yada..tra   yasatra yadasatra
kion..tra koda..tra   kionsatra kodasatra
..tra da..tra   satra dasatra

The subjunctive of a verb is formed in the following way:

"vitra (person) + (present infinitve)"

For example, "May you be well!" would be translated as: Vitra da nasa salo!